Turkey 1923 Agreement In Hindi

The treaty was accepted by the government of Sultan Mehmed Vahdettin VI in Istanbul, but rejected by the rival nationalist government of Kemal Ataturk in Ankara. The separate Treaty of Ataturk with the USSR and its successive victories against the Greeks during the War of Independence forced the Allies in Lausanne-Switzerland in 1923 to negotiate a new treaty. The treaty provided for the independence of the Republic of Turkey, but also the protection of the Greek-Orthodox Christian minority in Turkey and the Muslim minority in Greece. However, the majority of Turkey`s Christian population and the Muslim population of Greece had already been expelled under the previous agreement signed by Greece and Turkey on the exchange of the Greek and Turkish population. Only the Greek Orthodox of Constantinople, Imbros and Tenedos (about 270,000 at the time) and the Muslim population of Western Thrace (about 129,120 in 1923) were excluded. [12] Article 14 of the Treaty granted the islands of Imbros (Gokéada) and Tenedos (Bozcaada) a “special administrative organization”, a right which the Turkish government had revoked on 17 February 1926. Turkey also formally accepted the loss of Cyprus (which had been leased to the British Empire after the Berlin Congress in 1878, but de jure remained Ottoman territory until the First World War). Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (both occupied by British troops under the pretext of defying the Urabi revolt in 1882 and restoring order, “but de jure the Ottoman territories remained until the First World War) were given to the British Empire, which had unilaterally annexed them on 5 November 1914. [3] The fate of Mosul province was to be determined by the League of Nations.

Turkey also explicitly renounced all claims on the Dodecanese Islands that Italy was to return to Turkey in 1912, after the Italian-Turkish War (1911-1912), under Article 2 of the Ouchy Treaty. [13] [14] In return, Turkey renounced all claims to former Turkish territories outside its new borders and pledged to guarantee the rights of its minorities. A separate agreement between Greece and Turkey provided for mandatory minority exchanges. (1) यूरोप का मरीज तुर्की को कहा जाता है. (2) पान इस् लामिज् म का नारा अब् दुल हमीद द्वितीय ने दिया. (3) युवा तुर्क आंदोलन 1908 ई. हुई. (4) अब् दुल हमीद द्वितीय के शासनकाल में में युवा तुर्क आंदोलन की शुरुआत हुई.

(5) प्रथम विश् वयुद्ध के बाद तुर्की के साथ हुई भीषण अपमानजनक संधि को सेब्र की संधि के नाम से जाना जाता है. (6) सेब्र की संधि 10 अगस् त 1920 ई. हुई. (7) सेब्र की संधि को मुस् तफा कमालपाशा ने मानने से इनकार कर दिया. (8) आधुनिक तुर्की का निर्माता मुस् तफा कमालपाशा को माना जाता है. (9) अतातुर्क (तुर्की का पिता) मुस् तफा कमालपाशा के नाम से जाना जाता है. (10) मुस् तफा कमालपाशा का जन् म 1891 ई.

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